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A year into the war, scores of Indian villages had been burned to ash. Five thousand native people had died; hundreds of men, women and children who did survive — "heathen malefactors" Josiah Winslow called them — were loaded onto boats, shipped to the West Indies and Europe, and sold into slavery.

Native tribes in southern New England had been crushed, and would never again control their destiny in their homeland. Narrator: In the summer of , Philip retreated home to Mount Hope with his wife and children; his cause all but lost. Let me choose my actions wisely for the well being of my People. Jenny Hale Pulsipher, Historian: It does seem a little unusual that he would come back to Mount Hope, because there are so many troops around there looking for him.

It's like consciously walking into a trap. Jill Lepore, Historian: When he returns to Mount Hope, he certainly has given up, he's going there to die. Rather than a grand, heroic military figure, he's a more poignant, sad figure, a person filled with sorrow at the end of his life. Narrator: On August 12, , an English militia unit — along with a Praying Indian named John Alderman — surprised Philip and his dwindling band of followers. The scarred right hand of Philip was given to Alderman as a trophy of the war.

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His parts were strewn about the colonies, spread to the four corners. Calloway, Historian: This is a warning to other people, to other Indian people. This is what the English will…this is how the Enlish will deal with rebellion, deal with treason. And remember that in English eyes Philip was a traitor — and this was the punishment meted out by 17th century Englishman to traitors.

Narrator: Massasoit's son was dead and scattered, but the colonists were taking no chances; they captured Philip's son and heir — a nine-year-old boy — and locked him in a jail in Plymouth. While English authorities deliberated on whether to sell the boy into slavery, or simply murder him, the Puritans gave thanks to their God. Jill Lepore, Historian: And the final day of thanksgiving, of the war, is the day Philip's head is marched into Plymouth. This decapitated head on a pole, its erected in the center, in the center of town and is cause for a great celebration.

Narrator: They wouldn't take it down, Philip's head. For two decades — while Philip's son lived in slavery in the West Indies — the head was displayed in Plymouth, a reminder to the Indians about who was in charge; a reminder to the English that God continued to smile on their endeavor.


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Calloway, Historian: It's hard to see how conflict could have been avoided and how the outcome of that war could have been different. Looking at the generation before this war, there is at least a moment, where things were different. Narrator: No pictures were ever made of him during his lifetime. No account in his own words was left behind. Looking back the movement he led would seem to some to have been doomed to failure from the start.

Kevin Williams, Absentee Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma: I mean, to be Shawnee, and to have Tecumseh be a member of that tribe is to be honored — to be honored to be in that tribe. He and his brother were trying to get the Shawnee people back to their roots and try to keep their lands from being taken.

And he was a visionary. And I think today — what would have happened if he had succeeded in his plan? It would have changed history. Stephen Warren, Historian: One way one might think of Tecumseh is as a man who led a revolution of young men — young men who were tired of the accommodationist stance of their elders — young men who thought that the leadership structure of the Shawnee tribe needed to be reordered and reimagined, in order for the Shawnees and all native people to survive. David Edmunds, Historian: What Tecumseh is fighting for is the ability of Indian people east of the Mississippi to hold onto their homelands.

Their lands are under siege in the period after the American Revolution. His genius was in inspiring people. And he was a very inspirational man that was able to bring out the very best in those people who supported him. And to see beyond any particular tribal affiliation, and to realize that this was a struggle that was of greater magnitude. I also think that there was a spiritual component to this — that he believed that he was appointed by the powers in the universe And to retain what was left of the Indian homeland. This was his life. This was what he had been born to do.

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Tecumseh: These lands are ours. No one has a right to remove us. The Master of Life knows no boundaries, nor will his red people acknowledge any. The Master of Life has appointed this place for us to light our fires, and here we shall remain. So that's what his name meant: Teh-cum-theh. David Edmunds, Historian: Ohio was a very special place for the Shawnees.

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It was an area where one could come down from Ohio, cross the Ohio River and hunt into the bluegrass region of Kentucky — where at this time there were small herds of buffalo, there were elk, there were deer there. So it was a very special place, and it was a place which was very dear to Shawnee hearts.

Shawnees had lived in the Ohio Valley off and on for a great period of time. Colin Calloway, Historian: Tecumseh was born around Much of that territory is Shawnee hunting territory. David Edmunds, Historian: Tecumseh and his younger brother grew up in the midst of the American Revolution. It was a time when Shawnee warriors went south across the river to strike at the frontier forts in Kentucky, and it was a time when the Shawnee villages north of the Ohio were attacked periodically by expeditions of Kentuckians into the region.

Narrator: Named for the Kispokothe war clan into which he was born — whose spiritual patron was a celestial panther leaping across the heavens — he showed promise from the start — quick to learn, graceful and athletic, and touched with a striking natural charisma. He was very unsuccessful as a little child. As a child of about ten or twelve years old he shoots his own eye out while fooling around with a bow and arrow Narrator: In the end, no Shawnee family would be left untouched by the rising tide of violence in the Ohio River Valley.

Their mother left for Missouri in after horrifying warfare between the Long Knives and the Shawnees. So that by the time Lalawethika was thirteen, roughly half of their immediate family members had either been killed or had voluntarily removed from Ohio. Narrator: For the Shawnees as a whole, the outcome of the American Revolution would prove even more cataclysmic. All through the war they had fought valiantly on the British side in defense of their homelands, without losing a battle — only to discover — following the British surrender — that their one time allies had ceded all lands west of the Appalachians to the new American republic.

The terms of the treaty do not even mention Indian people — a nd, yet, this is a treaty that has huge That is Indian country. And within a few years, Indian people begin to recoil from that, and to recognize the degree to which the United States represents a major threat to their existence.

Indian nations begin to unite in a confederation, to resist that expansion. Narrator: In the alliance of tribes that now rose up to stop the white invasion, the Shawnees would take the lead, and Tecumseh himself first make a name for himself on the field of battle — in what would prove to be the beginning of an epic thirty-year long struggle, that would permanently shape the physical and moral geography of the new nation.

David Edmunds, Historian: The area they called the Old Northwest — the area north of the Ohio River — was sort of up for grabs in the period after the American Revolution.

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The British still had forts at Detroit, and they still had a lot of influence among the tribes because they were operating out of Canada. And they feel that if the United States goes under, they want to be able to move back into this region in force. Narrator: For six long years, the Shawnees and their allies kept U. David Edmunds, Historian: Tecumseh fights in the battle, and eventually has to withdraw, with part of his warriors, towards the British fort.

Colin Calloway, Historian: The British slam the gates of the fort in their faces — fearful of a renewed war with the United States To the Indians — to Tecumseh — this is another act of British betrayal. And it is following this battle that the tribes are forced to sign the Treaty of Greenville — giving up about the southeastern two-thirds of Ohio.

Tecumseh refuses to sign the treaty. He even refuses to participate in the proceedings. Tecumseh is incensed that they are now forced to give up much of his former homeland. But this is the death knell, in many ways, for the tribes in the Old Northwest. Donald L.

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Fixico, Historian: The natural world that the Shawnees knew The eastern tribes are being pushed farther into their lands. There are observations of deer being less — bear being less, the receding of wild game. And so Tecumseh knows he has to construct some type of plan. And it has to be a large plan, in order to confront this huge westward expansion that begins to pulsate into different areas — into the Great Lakes area — and into the southeast part of the United States. But how do you stop this huge westward expansion?

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Narrator: The Treaty of Greenville marked a crucial turning point in the battle for the eastern half of the continent — opening the Ohio River Valley to a flood of white settlers — hemming the Shawnees and their allies onto dwindling tracts of land too small to sustain the old ways of life. Even in the newly created Territory of Indiana — into which Tecumseh and his followers now retreated, hoping to find refuge — a systematic policy of land loss and dispossession was soon put into place by American politicians — eager to effect the transfer of land any way they could — and convinced the Indian way of life was dying.

Some tribes are advancing, and on these English seductions will have no effect. But the backward will yield, and be thrown further back into barbarism and misery And it became a way of making native people into debtors of the United States. And they will only be able to pay those back through a cession of lands. There is no place at that time you could really — if you were a Shawnee — have called home.